The broad range of arguments and themes developed between c. In the 14th century, as the monarchies north and west of the Alps began a process of political consolidation that gradually ended feudalism, the city-states of Italy began to develop systematic theories of popular sovereignty and celebrations of active citizenship. The optimism of humanist political thought suffered a major setback during the French invasion of Italy and ensuing Italian wars, a traumatic context that gave rise to the pessimistic realism of Machiavelli and Guicciardini. Initially an Italian phenomenon, humanism became an important aspect of western European political culture concurrent with the 16th-century Reformation.
Few historians are comfortable with the triumphalist and western Europe-centred image of the Renaissance as the irresistible march of modernity and progress. A sharp break with medieval values and institutions, a new awareness of the individual, an awakened interest in the material world… Origins and rise of humanism The term Middle Ages was coined by scholars in the 15th century to designate the interval between the downfall of the Classical world of Greece and Rome and its rediscovery at the beginning of their own century, a revival in which they felt they were participating.
Indeed, the notion of a long period of cultural darkness had been expressed by Petrarch even earlier. Events at the end of the Middle Ages, particularly beginning in the 12th century, set in motion a series of social, political, and intellectual transformations that culminated in the Renaissance.
These included the increasing failure of the Roman Catholic Church and the Holy Roman Empire to provide a stable and unifying framework for the organization of spiritual and material life, the rise in importance of city-states and national monarchies, the development of national languages, and the breakup of the old feudal structures.
While the spirit of the Renaissance ultimately took many forms, it was expressed earliest by the intellectual movement called humanism. Humanism was initiated by secular men of letters rather than by the scholar-clerics who had dominated medieval intellectual life and had developed the Scholastic philosophy.
Humanism began and achieved fruition first in Italy. The fall of Constantinople in provided humanism with a major boost, for many eastern scholars fled to Italy, bringing with them important books and manuscripts and a tradition of Greek scholarship.
First, it took human nature in all of its various manifestations and achievements as its subject. Second, it stressed the unity and compatibility of the truth found in all philosophical and theological schools and systems, a doctrine known as syncretism.
Third, it emphasized the dignity of man. In place of the medieval ideal of a life of penance as the highest and noblest form of human activity, the humanists looked to the struggle of creation and the attempt to exert mastery over nature.
Finally, humanism looked forward to a rebirth of a lost human spirit and wisdom. In the course of striving to recover it, however, the humanists assisted in the consolidation of a new spiritual and intellectual outlook and in the development of a new body of knowledge. The effect of humanism was to help men break free from the mental strictures imposed by religious orthodoxy, to inspire free inquiry and criticismand to inspire a new confidence in the possibilities of human thought and creations.
From Italy the new humanist spirit and the Renaissance it engendered spread north to all parts of Europe, aided by the invention of printing, which allowed literacy and the availability of Classical texts to grow explosively.
Foremost among northern humanists was Desiderius Erasmuswhose Praise of Folly epitomized the moral essence of humanism in its insistence on heartfelt goodness as opposed to formalistic piety. The intellectual stimulation provided by humanists helped spark the Reformationfrom which, however, many humanists, including Erasmus, recoiled.
In the hands of men such as Leonardo da Vinci it was even a sciencea means for exploring nature and a record of discoveries. Art was to be based on the observation of the visible world and practiced according to mathematical principles of balance, harmony, and perspectivewhich were developed at this time.
Leonardo da VinciSelf-portrait of Leonardo da Vinci in red chalk, c. Nicholas, tempera on wood by Ambrogio Lorenzetti, c. Luca Borghi Palladio, Andrea: Francis of Assisi had rejected the formal Scholasticism of the prevailing Christian theology and gone out among the poor praising the beauties and spiritual value of nature.
His example inspired Italian artists and poets to take pleasure in the world around them.Renaissance Politics During the Renaissance secular political philosophy began to emerge after about a century of theological political thought in Europe.
While the Middle Ages did see secular politics in practice under the rule of the Holy Roman Empire, the academic field was wholly scholastic and therefore Christian in nature.
Renaissance Politics During the Renaissance secular political philosophy began to emerge after about a century of theological political thought in Europe.
While the Middle Ages did see secular politics in practice under the rule of the Holy Roman Empire, the academic field was wholly scholastic and therefore Christian in nature. Social, Economic, and Political Effects of the Renaissance Social Impact Economical Impact During the Renaissance, the Atlantic powers of Portugal, Spain and France increased their colonial territory, this led to an increase in their wealth aswell.
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an analysis of the history of hypnosis in psychology Content Covered: Today students will be introduced to the major artworks of the a case study about interpersonal communication Renaissance through the use of a webquest In this Kenneth arnold the.
Humanism was the focus on the effects of one's actions in relation to all of humanity rather than just in relation to one's self Humanism was the focus on achievement on Earth rather than preparation for the afterlife.
Article shared by. After reading this article you will learn about the impact of renaissance and reformation on political theory. Both Renaissance and Reformation turned the academic, intellectual and even the political worlds of whole Europe upside down.