Career Opportunities All Western organisations that work with the Arab world or with Arab or Muslim communities in the West — from travel agencies to security services — need people with expertise in Arab and Islamic studies. There are opportunities to work in local government or aid organisations in the public sector, and some private-sector opportunities in the Western firms that operate within the Arab world.
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This article has been corrected. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Professional groups, such as IFAPP International Federation of Pharmaceutical Physicians and Pharmaceutical Medicineare expected to produce the defined core competencies to orient the discipline and the academic programs for the development of future competent professionals and to advance the profession.
On the other hand, PharmaTrain, an Innovative Medicines Initiative project, has become the largest public-private partnership in biomedicine in the European Continent and aims to provide postgraduate courses that are designed to meet the needs of professionals working in medicines development.
A working group was formed within IFAPP including representatives from PharmaTrain, academic institutions and national member associations, with special interest and experience on Quality Improvement through education.
The objectives were successfully achieved. Seven domains and 60 core competencies were identified and aligned accordingly. The effective implementation of training programs using the competencies or the PharmaTrain LO anywhere in the world may transform the drug development process to an efficient and integrated process for better and safer medicines.
Professional education has not kept pace with these changes, largely because of fragmented, outdated and static curricula that produce ill-equipped graduates. Redesign of professional health education is thus necessary and timely, aiming for transformative learning and interdependency in education.
Institute of Medicine, ; Josiah Macy Jr.
Transformative learning involves three fundamental shifts: Outcomes-Based Education or Competency-Based Education has been proposed as a suitable solution for transformative learning.
Dreyfus, ; Harden, ; Heffron et al.
Competency based education CBE is an emerging discourse in the health profession's education and has been adopted by numerous academic institutions and professional associations all over the world, at the undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing professional development CPD levels.
The definition of CBE is highly variable in the literature. A systematic review of the medical education literature related to CBE definition led to the following proposal: CBE is organized around competencies, or predefined abilities, as outcomes of the curriculum. Competencies can be assembled like building blocks to facilitate progressive development.
Competence is a point on the spectrum of improving performance. A competent professional is one possessing the required abilities in all domains in a certain context at a defined stage of education or practice. Competence and performance are different although closely interrelated.
Performance can be affected by a number of factors, regardless of competence. Dreyfus, ; Frank et al. Pharmaceutical physicians work in industry, drug regulatory authorities and clinical research organizations, but have a close affinity with their medical colleagues in primary and secondary healthcare and at universities.
As a postgraduate medical discipline, pharmaceutical medicine has a recognized international syllabus, training courses with examinations and qualifications, its own research methodologies and embraces new technologies and regulations in pursuit and proof of efficacy, safety and effectiveness of medicines.
Organized pharmaceutical medicine is a relatively young medical specialty. Although there are physicians working for pharmaceutical companies worldwide, there is limited awareness of the discipline at the level of the academic and national medical associations, which has contributed to a slow uptake in achieving recognition as a medical specialty.
Four countries in Europe: In Europe, pharmaceutical medicine is still in its infancy in most of the countries, and few schools of medicine have a dedicated curriculum.
Around pharmaceutical physicians and other biomedical professionals involved in drug development are part of the global membership. In spite of the fact that pharmaceutical companies are used to investing heavily in continuing medical education CME or CPD for health care providers, very few consistent efforts to fostering education and training among their employees particularly pharmaceutical physicians can be cited.
This is probably due to the lack of formal certification other than the professional qualification required to work as a physician in the pharmaceutical industry. On-the-job experience and training on specific topics have been the traditional approach to individual professional development within pharmaceuticals.
Similarly, surveys conducted among pharmaceutical physicians in the USA showed the respondents lacked formal training in critical areas of drug development Stonier et al.
Professional groups, such as IFAPP, are expected to produce the defined core competencies to orient the discipline and the academic programs for the development of future competent professionals and to advance the profession.
In the last 2 years the nucleus of courses sharing the same standards has been set-up with an additional group of 12 universities in all continents.Clinical cultural competency and health-disparities instruction may not be adequately incorporated into the pharmacy school curricula in the institutions studied.
Relevant education and training are necessary to enhance cultural competency among pharmacy students. Mar 10, · Furthermore, delineation of the specific core competencies for these students was deemed necessary to provide guidance for new program development and to identify the specific skills attained by individuals completing a PhD in the clinical pharmaceutical sciences.
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