Medieval period The origins of vernacular writing Bywhen the Muslim invasion of the Iberian Peninsula began, Latin spoken there had begun its transformation into Romance. These jarchas provide evidence of a popular poetry begun perhaps as early as the 10th century, and they are related to traditional Spanish lyric types e. Vernacular chroniclers mention many other heroic minstrel narratives, now lost, but, as a result of the incorporation of these narratives into chronicles, themes and textual passages can be reconstructed. The beginnings of prose A major influence on prose was exercised by Arabic.
The first quarter of the 19th century was dominated by Romantic poetry. Moreover, the term, which represents the perspective of modern scholars seeking to trace the origin of later Russian works, obscures the fact that the East Slavic peoples of the lands then called Rus are the ancestors of the Ukrainian and Belarusian as well as of the Russian people of today.
Works of the oldest Kievan period also led to modern Ukrainian and Belarusian literature. Third, the literary language established in Kievan Rus was Church Slavonicwhich, despite the gradual increase of local East Slavic variants, linked the culture to the wider community known as Slavia orthodoxa—that is, to the Eastern Orthodox South Slavs of the Balkans.
Fourth, some have questioned whether these texts can properly be called literary, if by that term is meant works that are designed to serve a primarily aesthetic function, inasmuch as these writings were generally written to serve ecclesiastic or utilitarian purposes. The Kievan period The Kievan period so called because Kiev was the seat of the grand princes extends from the Christianization of Russia in to the conquest of Russia by the Tatars Mongols in the 13th century.
Russia received Christianity from Byzantium rather than from Rome, a fact of decisive importance for the development of Russian culture. Whereas Catholic Poland was closely linked to cultural developments in western Europe, Orthodox Russia was isolated from the West for long periods and, at times, regarded its culture as dangerous.
Conversion by Byzantium also meant that the language of the church could be the vernacular rather than, as in the West, Latin; this was another factor that worked against the absorption of Western culture. Russia was not the first Slavic culture to be converted to Christianity, and a standardized language, the Old Church Slavonic pioneered in the 9th century by Saints Cyril or Constantine and Methodiuswas already available.
Bulgariawhich had been Christianized a century earlier and had offered a home to the Cyrillo-Methodian community, became a conduit for the transmission of Greek culture, translated into Old Church Slavonic, to Russia, which in turn rapidly established its own scribal activities in copying and translating.
Thus a significant literary activity of the Kievan period consisted of translating or adapting borrowed works. It is worth stressing that the enormous prestige accorded to translating has continued to be a distinctive characteristic of Russian culture.
During the Kievan period the selection of translated foreign works circulating in Russia by and large reflected the interests of the church: Ostromirovo evangeliye The Ostromir Gospel of —57 is the oldest dated Russian manuscript.
Versions of the four Gospels, the Book of Revelationguidebooks of monastic rules, homilies, hagiographic collections, and prayers reflect the religious interests of the clerical community.
But, on the whole, translations offered a rather limited access to Greek culture aside from the ecclesiastical. Other significant homiletic works were written by Clement of Smolensk, metropolitan of Russia from toand by St. Cyril of Turov — Both a chronicle account and two lives of Boris and Gleb, the first Russian saints, have survived to the present day.
The sanctity of these two men, who were killed by their brother Svyatopolk in a struggle for the throne, consists not in activity but in the pious passivity with which, in imitation of Christ, they accepted death. This ideal of passive acceptance of suffering was to exercise a long-lasting influence on Russian thought.
The monk Nestor c. The Kievo-Pechersky paterik The Paterik of the Kievan Caves Monasteryclosely related to hagiographycollects stories from the lives of monks, along with other religious writings. The tradition of pilgrimage literature also begins in this period.
Composed between andthe Igor Tale, as it is generally known, was discovered in by Count Musin-Pushkin.Founded in , Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections, both formal and informal, to Princeton University.
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They hate because they fear, and they fear because they feel that the deepest feelings of their lives.
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The nineteenth century was a time of extraordinary attunement to the unspoken, the elusively present, and the subtly haunting. Quiet Testimony finds in such attunement a valuable rethinking of what it means to encounter the truth. Criticisms of Marxism have come from various political ideologies and academic benjaminpohle.com include general criticisms about a lack of internal consistency, criticisms related to historical materialism, that it is a type of historical determinism, the necessity of suppression of individual rights, issues with the implementation of communism and economic issues such as the distortion or.
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