How to Write a Summary of an Article? Regaele Olarte Research Adviser Statement of the Problem The researchers aimed to determine if the Talisay Terminalia catappa leaves extract could be developed as a multi-colored fabric dye.
Why do materials fail? In most cases, the material is flawed from its genesis. In crystalline materials, it may be the inclusion of one different atom or molecule in the structure of the growing crystal, or simply the juncture of two crystal planes.
In depositional materials, different grain types and sizes may be laid down, resulting in layering which then becomes the initiation plane for the fracture. Most materials fail because of mechanical stresses, for example the weight of the overburden, or heaving Atkinson, ; Heard et al.
Some mechanical stresses are applied constantly2 until the material fails, others are delivered in a sudden event.
Other causes of failure are thermal stresses, drying and wetting cycles and chemical dissolution. After a material fractures, the two faces of the fracture may be subject to additional stresses which either close or open the fracture, or may subject it to shear.
Other materials may temporarily or permanently deposit in the fracture, partially or totally blocking it for subsequent fluid flow. The fracture may be almost shut for millions of years, but if the material becomes exposed to the surface or near surface environment, the resulting loss of overburden or weathering may allow the fractures to open.
In some cases, we are actually interested in introducing fractures in the subsurface, via hydraulic Warpinski, or pneumatic fracturing Schuring et al. Our particular focus in this study is the role that fractures play in the movement of contaminants in the subsurface.
Water supply from fractured bedrock aquifers is common in the United Kaymito leaves decoction as antiseptic mouthwash Mutch and Scott, With increasing frequency contaminated fractured aquifers are detected NRC, In many cases, the source of the contamination is a Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid NAPL which is either in pools or as residual ganglia in the fractures of the porous matrix.
Dissolution of the NAPL may occur over several decades, resulting in a growing plume of dissolved contaminants which is transported through the fractured aquifer due to natural or imposed hydraulic gradients. Fractures in aquitards may allow the seepage of contaminants, either dissolved or in their own phase, into water sources.
Fluid flow in the fractured porous media is of significance not only in the context of contaminant transport, but also in the production of oil from reservoirs, the generation of steam for power from geothermal reservoirs, and the prediction of structural integrity or failure of large geotechnical structures, such as dams or foundations.
Thus, the results of this study have a wide range of applications. The conceptual model of a typical contaminant spill into porous media has been put forward by AbriolaMercer and CohenKueper and McWhorter and Parker et al.
In some cases, the contaminant is dissolved in water and thus3 travels in a fractured aquifer or aquitard as a solute. Fractures provide a fast channel for widely distributing the contaminant throughout the aquifer and also result in contaminant transport in somewhat unpredictable directions, depending on the fracture planes that are intersected Hsieh et al.
More typically a contaminant enters the subsurface as a liquid phase separate from the gaseous or aqueous phases present Figure 1. The NAPL may be leaking from a damaged or decaying storage vessel e. The NAPL travels first through the unsaturated zone, under three-phase flow conditions, displacing air and water.
The variations in matrix permeability, due to the heterogeneity of the porous medium, result in additional deviations from vertical flow.
If the NAPL encounters layers of slightly less permeable materials e.
NAPL entering a tight, water-filled porous mediumit will tend to flow mostly in the horizontal direction until it encounters a path of less resistance, either more permeable or with larger pores. Microfractures in the matrix are also important in allowing the NAPL to flow through these lowpermeability lenses.
When the NAPL reaches the capillary fringe, two scenarios may arise. The NAPL first forms a small mound, which quickly spreads horizontally over the water table Figure 1. When the water table rises due to recharge of the aquifer, it displaces the NAPL pool upward, but by that time the saturation of NAPL may be so low that it becomes disconnected.
Connected NAPL will move up and down with the movements of the water table, being smeared until becomes disconnected. If the water table goes above the disconnected NAPL, it will begin to slowly dissolve.
NAPL in the unsaturated zone will4 slowly volatilize. The rates of dissolution and volatilization are controlled by the flow of water or air, respectively Powers et al. Flow into the fractures continues until either the fracture becomes highly DNAPL saturated, or the fracture is filled or closed below, or the DNAPL spreads thin enough to become disconnected.
They are a continuous source of dissolved contaminants for years or decades, making any pumping or active bioremediation alternative a very long term and costly proposition.
Excavation down to the fractured bedrock is very expensive in most cases, and removal of the contaminated bedrock even more so. Potential remediation alternatives for consideration, include dewatering the contaminated zone via high-rate pumping and then applying Soil Vapor Extraction to remove volatile DNAPLs, or applying steam to mobilize and volatilize the DNAPL towards a collection well.
An additional option is to use5 surfactants, either to increase the dissolution of DNAPL or to reduce its interfacial tension and thus remobilize it Abdul et al. An issue with remobilizing via surfactants is the potential to drive the DNAPLs further down in the aquifer or bedrock, complicating the removal.
If an effective remediation scheme is to be engineered, such as Soil Vapor Extraction, steam injection or surfactant-enhanced dissolution or mobilization, we need to understand how DNAPLs flow through fractures.* * Investigatory Project “ Kaymito Leaves Decoction As Antiseptic Mouthwash ” INVESTIGATORY PROJECT KAYMITO LEAVES DECOCTION AS ANTISEPTIC MOUTHWASH Submitted by: Ronnel S.
Pinote I- INTRODUCTION A. Background of the. Specifically, the study sought to answer the following questions: 1. Can Talisay (Terminalia catappa) leaves extract be developed as a multi-colored dye?
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