If an economy is to function well, people need incentives to work hard and innovate. The pertinent question is not whether income and wealth inequality is good or bad. It is at what point do these inequalities become so great as to pose a serious threat to our economy, our ideal of equal opportunity and our democracy. We are near or have already reached that tipping point.
Women, Work, and Politics: The Political Economy of Gender Inequality (The Institution for Social and Policy Studies) [Torben Iversen, Frances McCall Rosenbluth] on benjaminpohle.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Looking at women's power in the home, in the workplace, and in politics from a political economy perspective. Historically division of labor originates in two facts of nature: the inequality of human abilities and the variety of the external conditions of human life on the earth. January Since the s, economic inequality in the US has increased dramatically. And in particular, the rich have gotten a lot richer. Nearly everyone who writes about economic inequality says that it should be decreased.
Subscribe to the mailing list. Added addendum pointing to David Sifry's "Technorati Interesting Newcomers" list, which is in part a response to this article. A persistent theme among people writing about the social aspects of weblogging is to note and usually lament the rise of an A-list, a small set of webloggers who account for a majority of the traffic in the weblog world.
A new social system starts, and seems delightfully free of the elitism and cliquishness of the existing systems. Then, as the new system grows, problems of scale set in.
Not everyone can participate in Social inequality essay conversation. Not everyone gets to be heard. Some core group seems more connected than the rest of us, and so on.
Prior to recent theoretical work on social networks, the usual explanations invoked individual behaviors: We now know that these explanations are wrong, or at least beside the point. What matters is this: Diversity plus freedom of choice creates inequality, and the greater the Social inequality essay, the more extreme the inequality.
In systems where many people are free to choose between many options, a small subset of the whole will get a disproportionate amount of traffic or attention, or incomeeven if no members of the system actively work towards such an outcome. This has nothing to do with moral weakness, selling out, or any other psychological explanation.
The very act of choosing, spread widely enough and freely enough, creates a power law distribution. For much of the last century, investigators have been finding power law distributions in human systems. The linguist George Zipf observed that word frequency falls in a power law pattern, with a small number of high frequency words I, of, thea moderate number of common words book, cat cupand a huge number of low frequency words peripatetic, hypognathous.
Jacob Nielsen observed power law distributions in web site page viewsand so on. We are all so used to bell curve distributions that power law distributions can seem odd. The shape of Figure 1, several hundred blogs ranked by number of inbound links, is roughly a power law distribution.
They were InstaPundit and Andrew Sullivan, unsurprisingly. The data is drawn from N. Z Bear's work on the blogosphere ecosystem. The current version of this project can now be found at http: The inbound link data is just an example: Yahoo Groups mailing lists ranked by subscribers is a power law distribution.
Figure 2 LiveJournal users ranked by friends is a power law. Figure 3 Jason Kottke has graphed the power law distribution of Technorati link data.
The traffic to this article will be a power law, with a tiny percentage of the sites sending most of the traffic. If you run a website with more than a couple dozen pages, pick any time period where the traffic amounted to at least page views, and you will find that both the page views themselves and the traffic from the referring sites will follow power laws.
All mailing lists in the Yahoo Groups Television category, ranked by number of subscribers Data from September LiveJournal users ranked by number of friends listed. For whatever is being ranked -- income, links, traffic -- the value of second place will be half that of first place, and tenth place will be one-tenth of first place.
There are other, more complex formulae that make the slope more or less extreme, but they all relate to this curve. We've seen this shape in many systems. What've we've been lacking, until recently, is a theory to go with these observed patterns.
Now, thanks to a series of breakthroughs in network theory by researchers like Albert-Laszlo BarabasiDuncan Wattsand Bernardo Huberman among others, breakthroughs being described in books like LinkedSix Degreesand The Laws of the Webwe know that power law distributions tend to arise in social systems where many people express their preferences among many options.
We also know that as the number of options rise, the curve becomes more extreme.Here a few visual updates and links which highlight the extent of class inequality in the UK today 1. In Education 3 year olds from the richest fifth of households are twice as likely to be ‘school ready’ than 3 year olds from the poorest fifth of households.
2, by health – This is a nice, if dated article which reminds us that Based on mortality rates, a man aged In anthropology, privilege is a special right, advantage, or immunity granted or available only to a particular person or group.
In sociology, privilege is the perceived rights or advantages that are assumed to be available only to a particular person or group of people. The term is commonly used in the context of social inequality, particularly in regard to age, disability, ethnic or racial.
January Since the s, economic inequality in the US has increased dramatically. And in particular, the rich have gotten a lot richer. Nearly everyone who writes about economic inequality says that it should be decreased.
The disparity between the rich and everyone else is larger than ever in the United States and increasing in much of Europe. Why? Income inequality hinders economic opportunity and innovation. The. In race: Gobineau’s Essay on the Inequality of Human Races. The most important promoter of racial ideology in Europe during the midth century was Joseph-Arthur, comte de Gobineau, who had an almost incalculable effect on late 19th-century social theory.
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Sociology - Social Inequality. Extracts from this document Introduction. The social effects of social inequality. Introduction.